THE JUDAIKON

 

TO  IOUDAIKON

Some thirty-six or more Greek manuscripts of Matthew contain subscriptions preserving readings of a Jewish version of Matthew called “the Judaikon” which is described as a standard version on Zion, the Holy Mount, in Jerusalem.  There was until the fourth century a Nazarene Synagogue (commonly and wrongly called the “Church of the Apostles”) on Mt. Zion which had been build from the stones of the Temple following its destruction (see http://www.centuryone.org/apostles.html ).  None of the manuscripts contain all of the notes but each of them contain some of them.

READING 1
(  Mt. 4:5 )

Then the devil took him into the holy city; and set him on the pinnacle of the Temple.

The Judaikon has not “into the holy city” but “in Jerusalem”.

To Ioudaikon ouk exei eij thn agian polin, alla en Ierousalhm

NOTES:  This reading agrees with that of Luke 4:9 against canonical Matthew 4:5.

READING 2
( Mt. 5:22 )

but I say to you, that everyone who is angry with his brother without cause shall be in danger of the judgement…

The word [for] “without cause” is not written in some copies, nor in the Judaikon.

To eikh en tisin antigrafoij ou ketai, oude ea tw Ioudaikw

NOTES:  + “without cause” = Western Type and their revisions (Codex D; Old Latin & Latin Vulgate; Old Syriac and Peshitta) and the Byzantine Type (Majority Text,  Textus Receptus and Peshitta).   “without cause” = almost all (if not all) Alexandrian witnesses.  Also Hebrew Matthew (DuTillet, Munster and Shem Tob) all lack “without cause”.  Final point: according to the Talmud (b.Yoma 9b) at the time of the Second Temple “hatred without cause” predominated.

READING 3
( Mt. 7:21-23 )

21: Not every one that saith unto me, Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of heaven; but he that doeth the will of my Father which is in heaven.
22: Many will say to me in that day, Lord, Lord, have we not prophesied in thy name? and in thy name have cast out devils? and in thy name done many wonderful works?
23: And then will I profess unto them, I never knew you: depart from me, ye that work iniquity.

The Judaikon has here, “If you are in my bosom and do not the will of my Father which is in heaven, out of my bosom will I cast you away.”

To Ioudaikon eatauQa outwj eXei <<ean hte en tw kolpw mou, kai to qelhma
tou Patroj mou tou en ouranoij uh poihte, ek tou kolpou mou aporriyw umaj
>>

NOTES:  This is quite probably the writing being referred to by Clement (early Second Century) in his Second Letter to the Corinthians where Clement says:

Also let us not fear men, but rather God.  Wherefore, if
we should do such wicked things, the Lord has said,
“Though you should be joined to me, even in my very bosom
and not keep my commandments, I would cast you off,
and say to you, ‘Depart from me; I know not who you are,
you workers of iniquity.’”
(2Clement 4:5 (2:15 in some editions))

READING 4
( Mt. 10:16 )

Behold I send you out as sheep in the midst of wolves, be you therefore wise as serpents and as harmless as doves.

The Judaikon has “[wise] more than serpents”

To Ioudaikon <<uper ofeij>>

READING 5
( Mt. 11:12 )

And from the days of Yochanan the immerser until now the Kingdom of Heaven suffers violence, and men of violence take it by force.

The Judaikon has “is ravished/plundered”

To Ioudaikon <<diarpazetai>> exei

Notes: DuTillet Hebrew Matthew has here “the Kingdom of Heaven is constricted and the forceful plunder (Nylzwg) it.

READING 6
( Mt. 11:25 )

At that time Yeshua answered and said, “I confess (logoumai) to you, O Father…

The Judaikon has “I give thanks/praise to you”

To Ioudaikon <<euxaristw soi>>

NOTES:   Du Tillet & Munster have “thank you” Kdw) Shem Tob “praise” (xbt#y) ; Old Syriac and Peshitta have “thank” ()dwm).

READING 7
( Mt. 12:40 )

For Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly of the whale; so shall the Son of Man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth.

The Judaikon has not “three [days and three nights]” there [in the heart of the earth].

To Ioudaikon ouk exei <<treij h [meraj kai treij nuktaj]>>

READING 8
( Mt. 15:5 )

…that which you might have been profited by me is a gift (dwron).

The Judaikon “corban [an offering] is what you should obtain from us.”

To Ioudaikon <<korban o umeij wfelhqhsesqe ec hmwn>>

NOTES: “corban” (korban = Nbrq) agrees with Greek Mark 7:11 as well as the Aramaic of the Old Syriac and Peshitta Versions.

READING 9
( Mt. 16:2-3 )

2: He answered and said unto them, *When it is evening, ye say, It will be fair weather: for the sky is red.
3: And in the morning, It will be foul weather to day: for the sky is red and lowring. O ye hypocrites, ye can discern the face of the sky; but can ye not discern the signs of the times?*

What is marked with an asterisk is not found in other manuscripts, also it is not found in the Judaikon.

Ta seshmeiwmeaa dia tou asteriskou en eteroij en eteroij ouk emferetai, oute en tw Ioudaikw

NOTES:  This text is also absent from the Aramaic of the Old Syriac.

READING 10
( Mt. 16:17 )

And Yeshua answered and said to him, “Blessed are you Shimon bar Yonah…

The Judaikon has “son of Yochanan”.

bariwna] To Ioudaikon <<uie Iwannou>>

READING 11
( Mt. 18:22 )

Yeshua said to him, “I say not to you, ‘Until seven times’ but ‘until seventy times seven’”.

The Judaikon has, immediately after the “seven times seven”, “for in the prophets,
after they were anointed with the Ruach HaKodesh, there was found in them a word of sin.

To Ioudaikon echj exei meta to ebdomhkontakij epta <<Kai gar en toij
profhtaij meta to xrisqhnai autouj en Pneumati Agiw eurisketo
]-etw, eurisketai] en autoij logoj amartiaj

NOTES: This passage agrees with a reading of the Goodnews according to the Hebrews (recorded in Jerome; adv. Pelag III 2).  This single agreement has caused some scholars to assume that the Judaikon is identical with this book, however one cannot draw that conclusion from a single common reading.

READING 12
( Mt. 26:74 )

Then began he to curse and to swear, “I know not the man,” and right away the rooster crowed.

The Judaikon “and he denied and swore and cursed.”

To Ioudaikon <<kai hrnhsato kai wmosen kai kathrasato>>

NOTES: Shem Tob has “then he began to deny (rwpkl) and to swear that at no time had he known him…”

READING 13
( Mt. 27:65 )

Pilate said to them, “You have a guard, go make it sure as you can.”

The Judaikon has “And he delivered to them armed men, that they might sit over gainst the cave and keep it day and night.”

To Ioudaikon <<kai paredwken autoij andraj enoplouj, ina kaqezwntai kat
enantion tou sphlaiou kai thrwsin auton hmeraj kai nuktaj
>>

 

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